Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 I-ratings

A. Charted visual approach procedures

We start with visual approaches (in MVMC) that are charted. CVFPs are established for noise abatement purposes. 

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B. ILS/LPV approaches

Finally, the famous ILS approach. One I will fly traditionally using classic VOR, the other I will fly by use of GPS (LPV/WAAS).

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C. RNAV approaches without glideslope

Opposed to precision approaches, flying non-precision approaches (no LNAV or VNAV signal) is a bit harder. I start with flying RNAV ones, based of either LNAV or VNAV technology.

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D. VOR approaches

Next up are VOR approaches. These are essentially the same as LNAV approaches, only now I infer my position from my steam gauge VOR instrument.

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E. LOC and localizer-type approaches

These localizer approaches provide precise lateral approach guidance to the runway. I explore different types of localizer approaches, such as LDA, SDF, and more.

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F. LOC back course approaches

A bit more difficult than ordinary LOC approaches, the LOC-BC approach requires me to fly the back course of the localizer and thus to 'inversely' fly the radial. 

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G. NDB approaches

Time to face the might NDB approach and refresh my NDB radial flying practice of some time ago. Exciting.

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H. Circling approaches

These maneuvers are needed for some approaches to align the aircraft with a runway for landing when a straight-in landing is not possible or desirable.

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I. Sidestep approaches

A sidestep approach is a visual maneuver to land on an adjacent parallel runway. Sometimes, a sidestep is requested/offered to facilitate an easier exit of the runway or taxi route to parking. 

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