Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 I-ratings

A. Holding patterns with GPS

Controllers or instrument procedures may instruct me to fly a holding near the airport, most times as part of missed approach procedures. I first learn to use GPS to fly one.

Winds calm
Crosswind

B. Holding patterns with VOR

Here I learn to fly a holding using VOR, without the use of GPS.

Winds calm
Crosswind

C. Holding patterns at Intersections

Next is learning to fly a holding that is based on an intersection.

Winds calm
Crosswind

D. Holding patterns with NDB

And the most difficult one, NDB holding procedures.

Winds calm
Crosswind